The Basics of Government
A government is the institution that rules a nation or other political unit. It is responsible for creating and enforcing laws, defending its borders, managing economic affairs, and providing public services. Government is also responsible for ensuring the rights of citizens.
There are many forms of government, but the main types include democracies, totalitarian regimes and authoritarian regimes. There are also a variety of hybrid systems. Governments are typically organized into branches, which have different functions and responsibilities. These include legislature, executive, and judiciary.
Governing institutions differ from one type of government to the next, and they depend on a country’s values, needs, and resources. For example, if a government supports an ideal of equality, it may promote laws that prevent discrimination. Similarly, it might make more efforts to provide public education and social assistance for the poor. It might also increase its spending on these programs and reduce taxes to pay for them.
Governments also regulate access to common goods like natural resources that are free for all to use but have a limited supply, such as fish in the sea or clean drinking water. This ensures that people do not take too freely from these resources and leave others with none. Governments are responsible for protecting these resources and providing public services like fire protection, postal service, and highways.
The Constitution assigns Congress responsibility for organizing the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, raising money to fund these institutions, declaring war, and making all laws necessary for carrying out these powers. In addition, it authorizes Congress to approve or reject presidential nominations for certain offices and to confirm federal judges and the Supreme Court. It also gives Congress the power to override presidential vetoes by two-thirds majorities of both houses of Congress. Congress can impose tariffs and taxes to raise funds, and it has the authority to direct the spending of federal money on particular projects.